Add draws from a matrix of draws (usually draws from a predictive distribution) to a data frame in tidy format. This is
a generic version of `add_predicted_draws()`

that can be used with model types
that have their own prediction functions that are not yet supported by tidybayes.

`add_draws(data, draws, value = ".value")`

- data
Data frame to add draws to, with M rows.

- draws
N by M matrix of draws, with M columns corresponding to the M rows in

`data`

, and N draws in each column.- value
The name of the output column; default

`".value"`

.

A data frame (actually, a tibble) with a `.row`

column (a
factor grouping rows from the input `data`

), a `.draw`

column (a unique index corresponding to each draw
from the distribution), and a column with its name specified by the `value`

argument (default is `.value`

)
containing the values of draws from `draws`

. The data frame is grouped by all rows in `data`

plus the `.row`

column.

Given a data frame with M rows and an N by M matrix of N draws, adds a `.row`

, `.draw`

, and `.value`

column (or another name if `value`

is set) to `data`

, and expands `data`

into a long-format dataframe of draws.

`add_epred_draws(df, m)`

is roughly equivalent to `add_draws(df, posterior_epred(m, newdata = df))`

, except
that `add_epred_draws`

standardizes argument names and values across packages and has additional features for some
model types (like handling ordinal responses and distributional parameters in brms).

`add_predicted_draws(df, m)`

is roughly equivalent to `add_draws(df, posterior_predict(m, newdata = df))`

, except
that `add_predicted_draws`

standardizes argument names and values across packages.

`add_predicted_draws()`

, `add_draws()`

```
# \donttest{
library(ggplot2)
library(dplyr)
#>
#> Attaching package: 'dplyr'
#> The following objects are masked from 'package:stats':
#>
#> filter, lag
#> The following objects are masked from 'package:base':
#>
#> intersect, setdiff, setequal, union
library(brms)
#> Loading required package: Rcpp
#> Loading 'brms' package (version 2.16.3). Useful instructions
#> can be found by typing help('brms'). A more detailed introduction
#> to the package is available through vignette('brms_overview').
#>
#> Attaching package: 'brms'
#> The following objects are masked from 'package:tidybayes':
#>
#> dstudent_t, pstudent_t, qstudent_t, rstudent_t
#> The following object is masked from 'package:stats':
#>
#> ar
library(modelr)
theme_set(theme_light())
m_mpg = brm(mpg ~ hp * cyl, data = mtcars,
# 1 chain / few iterations just so example runs quickly
# do not use in practice
chains = 1, iter = 500)
#> Compiling Stan program...
#> Start sampling
#>
#> SAMPLING FOR MODEL '4744c885863d8dc4b3af7525e286f6fb' NOW (CHAIN 1).
#> Chain 1:
#> Chain 1: Gradient evaluation took 0 seconds
#> Chain 1: 1000 transitions using 10 leapfrog steps per transition would take 0 seconds.
#> Chain 1: Adjust your expectations accordingly!
#> Chain 1:
#> Chain 1:
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 1 / 500 [ 0%] (Warmup)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 50 / 500 [ 10%] (Warmup)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 100 / 500 [ 20%] (Warmup)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 150 / 500 [ 30%] (Warmup)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 200 / 500 [ 40%] (Warmup)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 250 / 500 [ 50%] (Warmup)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 251 / 500 [ 50%] (Sampling)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 300 / 500 [ 60%] (Sampling)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 350 / 500 [ 70%] (Sampling)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 400 / 500 [ 80%] (Sampling)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 450 / 500 [ 90%] (Sampling)
#> Chain 1: Iteration: 500 / 500 [100%] (Sampling)
#> Chain 1:
#> Chain 1: Elapsed Time: 0.125 seconds (Warm-up)
#> Chain 1: 0.04 seconds (Sampling)
#> Chain 1: 0.165 seconds (Total)
#> Chain 1:
#> Warning: Bulk Effective Samples Size (ESS) is too low, indicating posterior means and medians may be unreliable.
#> Running the chains for more iterations may help. See
#> https://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#bulk-ess
#> Warning: Tail Effective Samples Size (ESS) is too low, indicating posterior variances and tail quantiles may be unreliable.
#> Running the chains for more iterations may help. See
#> https://mc-stan.org/misc/warnings.html#tail-ess
# plot posterior predictive intervals
mtcars %>%
group_by(cyl) %>%
data_grid(hp = seq_range(hp, n = 101)) %>%
# the line below is roughly equivalent to add_epred_draws(m_mpg), except
# that it does not standardize arguments across model types.
add_draws(posterior_epred(m_mpg, newdata = .)) %>%
ggplot(aes(x = hp, y = mpg, color = ordered(cyl))) +
stat_lineribbon(aes(y = .value), alpha = 0.25) +
geom_point(data = mtcars) +
scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Greys")
# }
```